ALBRECHT RITSCHL (1822-1889), Protestant theologian, born at Berlin; studied at Rome, where in 1853 he became professor extraordinarius of theology, and in 1860 ordinary professor; after which he was in 1864 transferred to Göttingen, where he spent the rest of his life, gathering year after year around him a large circle of students, and enriching theological literature by his writings; the work which defines his position as a German theologian is entitled "The Christian Doctrine of Justification and Reconciliation," in which he seeks to draw the line between Christianity as exhibited respectively in the theology of the Reformation and that of modern Pietism; by his lectures and his writings he became the founder of what is called the Göttingen School of Theology, and exercised an influence on the religious philosophy of the time, such as has not been witnessed in Germany since the days of Schleiermacher; his teaching is distinguished by the prominence it gives to the ethical side of Christianity, and that it is only as exhibited on the ethical side that it becomes the exponent and medium of God's grace to mankind.
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