!ANTHROPOLOGY ANTHROPOLOGY, the science of man as he exists or has existed under different physical and social conditions. It is the study of the past societies. It deals with the origins, physical and cultural development, biological characteristics, and social customs and beliefs of humankind. Its unique contribution to studying the bonds of human social relations has been the distinctive concept of culture. It has also differed from other sciences concerned with human social behavior (especially sociology) in its emphasis on data from nonliterate peoples and archaeological exploration. Anthropology had been associated from the beginning with various other emergent sciences, especially biology, geology, linguistics, psychology, and archaeology. However it emerged as a separate branch of study in the mid-nineteenth century.